The structure, formation and dynamics of both animate and inanimate matter on the nanoscale are a highly interdisciplinary field of rapidly emerging research engaging a broad community encompassing experimentalists, theorists, and technologists. It is relevant for a large variety of molecular and nanosystems of different origin and composition and concerns numerous phenomena originating from physics, chemistry, biology, or materials science. This Topical Issue presents a collection of original research papers devoted to different aspects of structure and dynamics on the nanoscale. Some of the contributions discuss specific applications of the research results in several modern technologies and in next generation medicine. Most of the works of this topical issue were reported at the Fifth International Conference on Dynamics of Systems on the Nanoscale (DySoN) – the premier forum for the presentation of cutting-edge research in this field that was held in Potsdam, Germany in October of 2018.